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Article writing contest for month of December 2017

 

Dear Student,

Topics for article writing contest –

You have the liberty of choosing any one of the topics from the list as mentioned below:

1. Antibiotic resistance! What can Ayurveda do?

2. Rasayan medicines and Janapado-dwansa

3. Tackling air-pollution – Ayurveda’s contribution

4. Role and relevance of herbs in cancer prevention and treatment

 

Rewards for participating in the Article Writing Competition: This month the cash rewards will be for 3 winners

  • 1st prize winner will receive a cash prize of Rs. 5000/-
  • 2nd prize winners will receive a cash prize of Rs. 4000/-
  • 3rd prize winner will receive a cash prize of Rs. 3000/-

This competition offers a chance to the students have their writing skills reviewed by Charak’s senior editor. The winning articles will also be uploaded to the student site and even on the blog page of Charak Pharma website.

We urge and request you to continue participating in Charak students’ online activities.

 

Terms and conditions of participating in the “Article Writing Contest”

  1. Register on student.charak.com if not registered
  2. Post your article at “drcharak@charak.com
  3. The article must consist of the contents and style as mentioned below:
    • Article should be in blog format
    • Word count – minimum 500 and maximum 800
    • Content should be relevant to the topic selected
    • The content must be in English
    • The article must in “Word doc”
    • The article should be original work and not a plagiarism
    • Research articles will not be considered as Articles

 

Tips on writing the article:

  1. For this contest, we are looking for health-related articles based on the topics suggested. Writers have to express his/her ideas and expertise on the subject. The article should be original work and not a copy paste. The article should be in simple, easy to understand language for common people.
  2. The article must begin with an intro paragraph with definition, statistics, prevalence, facts, focus and attention-grabbing points.
  3. The next paragraph (section) must elaborately include findings, causes, risk factors and the core reason for the relevant condition/title of the topic/indication
  4. The third section must include current treatment options for the given condition/title of the topic/indication
  5. In the final section, enlist/mention the useful herbs and minerals for the management of the given condition/title of the topic/indication.
  6. Finally, conclude with your opinion, analysis, and comments on the topic.

 

Before sending the article please proofread your article.

Submission of the articles – The last date for submitting the article is 25th December 2017.  Please submit your article at drcharak@charak.com.

Antibiotic resistance what ayurveda can do?

Antibiotic resistance what ayurveda can do?

Author – Dr Avinash Bhat

PG scholar, Dept of Kayachikitsa

 

KVG Medical College, Sullia (KVGMC), Bangalore.

 

Ayurveda firmly believes in the Tridosha theory and it is believed that Dosha is solely responsible for the diseased and the healthy state. Though Ayurveda believes in microbial approach to some extent but generally does not recognize microbes as the primary cause of disease. According to Ayurveda anyone who has developed an imbalance in their bodily elements or Doshas and thereby has a weakened immune system may be subjected to a microbial infection which is considered a symptom of that imbalance. Since the advent of the antibiotics, an ever growing arsenal of antibiotics has provided an effective therapy against major pathogens. However due to the growing rates of antibiotic resistance it’s one of the important area of focus for the management of such cases through Ayurveda has to be explored. Ayurveda can help in overcoming these serious issues as a potent alternative on exploration in the following areas 1) Botanicals as an alternative to antibiotics 2)Immunomodulation on the basis of concept of Rasayana 3) Exploring botanicals as drug modifiers and bio enhancers.

WHO defines antimicrobial resistance as a microorganism’s resistance to an antimicrobial drug that was once able to treat an infection by that microorganism . In a multi centric study conducted in seven tertiary care hospital cities 61%E.coli were ESBL (extended spectrum beta lactamase) 31-51%klebsiella species were carbapenem resistant and pseudomona species were resistant to imepenem[i]. The major mechanisms that mediate bacterial resistance are1) Production of enzymes that degrade or chemically modify and inactivate the drugs.2) Target site modification3) Prevent drug uptake by altering permeability4) Enhanced export of antibiotic by efflux 5) Biofilm formation. The combined effects of genetic processes of mutation and selection, fast growth rates and the ability to exchange genes resistance or adaptation to the antibiotic environment seems to occur very quickly in an evolutionary timeframe.

 

Botanicals as an alternative:

Herbs possess a wide range of biologically active compounds. These organic compounds are biologically active substances, and represent ‘secondary metabolites’. Some secondary metabolites affect cell signalling or protect against oxidative or UV stress .The use of plant extracts and phytochemicals, possessing both known and unknown antimicrobial activities, could be of great importance in therapeutic treatments. Some of the drugs like guduchi,haridra have already established for these activities. Possible mechanisms of antimicrobial action are: (1) disintegration of cytoplasmic membrane, (2) interaction with membrane proteins (3)disturbance of outer membrane of gram negative bacteria (4) destabilization of the proton motive force with leakage of ions, (5) coagulation of the cell content, (6)inhibition of enzyme synthesis. Important secondary metabolites that are potent antimicrobial are 1) Alkaloids: They result in impaired cell division and cell death. The mechanism of action of alkaloids such as harmane and berberine (daruharidra) is attributed to this property 2) Flavonoid and terpenes: Increase in permeability of membrane and disruption is observed due to their interaction with membrane proteins present on bacterial cell wall.

 

 

Rasayanas as immunnomodulators:

The anti-oxidant activity of Rasayana may play a vital role in prevention of DNA damage thereby minimizing mutations which lead to drug resistance. The effect of Rasayana is not restricted to a specific pharmacological action instead is a comprehensive holistic mechanism. Possible modes of action of Rasayanas include: hemopoetic effect, antioxidant action, adaptogenic action, immunomodulatory action, anabolic action, nutritive function, DNA repair action & neuroprotective action. The essential oil of basil (tulsi), which has Rasayana activity, inhibited mutations from ultraviolet irradiation by 22-76%. Mutations caused by 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide were decreased by 23-52% and those from 2-nitropropane by 8-30%. Concordant findings reported showed that basil mainly worked by blocking DNA adduct formation triggered by 10-hydroxyestragole in the human hepatoma (HepG2) cell line, possibly by promoting phase II enzymes which resulted in conjugation and elimination of the carcinogen. This relatively new approach of using medicinal plants for their anti-mutagenic properties could be applied to bacteria by testing the plants ability to prevent mutations in bacteria thereby reducing bacterial antibiotic resistance.

 

Botanicals as drug modifiers and bio enhancers:

Antibiofilm activity:

Bacterial biofilms protects the microbes from antimicrobial agents. The essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Syzygium aromaticum were found to exhibit marked antibiofilm activity against both fungal and bacterial biofilms[ii] .The components of lemongrass oil inhibited biofilm formation, destroyed the pre-formed biofilms and had multiple targets on the bacterial cell.

 

Efflux pump (EP) inhibitors:

EPs are a vital resistance mechanism, both alone and in combination with changes in the permeability of the outer membrane. Medicinal plants have been reported to not only have the ability of inhibiting EPs but also disrupt the cytoplasm by affecting the permeability of membranes. Numerous phytoactive components, including the terpenecarnosic acid (Rosmarinus officinalis), the alkaloid reserpine (Rauvolfia vomitoria) and the diterpenetotarol (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), have shown to inhibit NorA-induced ethidium bromide efflux from a NorA over expresser.

 

Bioenhancers:

Piperine is the major plant alkaloid present in P. nigrum Linn (Black pepper) and P. longum Linn (Long pepper). Besides being an efflux pump inhibitor, it is also well known for its bioavailability enhancing (ex:rifampicine+piperine)activity of multiple drugs and nutraceuticals.

Conclusion:

The current problem of emerging MDR bacteria is posing a global medical threat and is continuously challenging the scientific community. The reducing efficacy and increasing toxicity of synthetic drugs is further aggravating the problem. This has led researchers to seek plant based antimicrobials for solution as they are now known to play a vital role in the development of effective therapeutics. Phytoactive constituents, either unaided or in combination with antibiotics may be an effective approach to deal with the global antimicrobial resistance. The efficacy of herbals in treatment of diseases for decades suggests that bacteria, fungi and viruses may have a reduced ability to adapt to a plant based antimicrobial regime.

[i] Govt .of India. National Action Plan On Antimicrobial Resistance. April 2017,8

[ii] Dalleau S, Cateau E, Berg_es T, Berjeaud JM, Imbert C. In vitro activity of terpenes against Candida biofilms. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2008; 31(6):572e6.

Role and relevance’s of herbs in Cancer prevention and treatment

Role and relevance’s of herbs in Cancer prevention and treatment

 

Author – Dr. Sampada Vasantrao Bende

PG student, Rasashastra and Bhaishajya kalpna department

Dr. D. Y. Patil college of ayurved and research center, Pimpri, Pune.

 

 

Introduction:

Archeologists discovered evidence that as early as 50000 BC humans used the leaves of plants for flavoring meats and around 2300 BC for wine making. However, Alexander the great campaigns in central Asia around 330 BC are often credited for introducing Asian, Persian, Indian, and Greek culture and ideas. Thus facilitating the dissemination and adoption of herbs among many culture. Early records indicate that herbs and spices were used as medicine.

Need for cancer prevention:

Cancer is a growing health problem around the world and is the second leading cause of death after heart disease. According to recent report by the WHO (www.who.int/cancer/en/) from a total of 58 million deaths worldwide in 2005, cancer accounted for 13%. There are now more than 10 million cases of cancer per year worldwide including a group of more than 100 diseases such as cancer of liver, lung, stomach, colon, breasts and so forth. The most rational way to prevention of cancer is social awareness and uses of some medicinal plants as a rasayana dravya mentioned in Ayurvedic texts and Grantha’s.

Role and relevance of herbs:

There are numerous physiological and biochemical carcinogens such as ultraviolet and ionizing radiator’s, asbestos, tobacco smoke, infection by virus etc. some kind of cancer are due to oxygen centered free radicals and over production of such free radicals can cause oxidative damage to biomolecule (e.g. lipid, proteins, DNA)

Free radicals are atom or group of atoms with an odd (unpaired) number of electrons and can be formed when oxygen interacts with certain molecules. Free radicals contain high energy. Presence of unpaired atom/ electrons they are highly active for gaining of electron from tissue. When one tissue loses its electron then tissue became unstable. This chain reaction is known as lipid per-oxidation. Lipid per-oxidation will cause cell damage and then after cell death will occur.

 

Above chain reaction shows how cell structure will damage. Damaging of cell structure results in to physiological variation’s and then failure of organ.

Veda’s and ancient science says that plants and herbs are acts as a medicine. It work’s on the basis of Rasa, Virya, Vipaka and Prabhava of that plant. Now a day’s modern science also proved that the efficacy of plants and herb’s in various disease. Chemical composition of herbs has much power to bind the free radicals, so it prevents the damage of cell and cell death.

Properties of plants and herbs for cancer prevention and treatment:

  • Cheap
  • Does not have toxic implications in a wide dose range
  • Orally administrated
  • Rapidly absorbed
  • Can act through multiple mechanism

Herbs and cancer prevention:

Few examples of herbs help’s in cancer treatment:

Sr. no. Name Observation
1 Centella asiatica Protect against radiation induced Weight loss, taste aversion
2 Hippophae rhamnoides Cell Survival,

Protect against radiation induced various haematological parameter

3 Osmium santum Cell Survival,

helps to increase colony forming unit, protect against radiation induced lipid peroxidation, chromosome damage

4 Panax ginseng Cell Survival,

helps to increase colony forming unit, reduce apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells, redioprotective effect on testicular enzymes.

5 Podophyllum hexandrum Cell Survival,

protect against gastrointestinal damage and embryonic nervous system, dismature in the liver and intestine.

6 Tinospora cordifolia Cell Survival,

helps to increase spleen colony forming unit and other hematological parameter protect against radiation induced micro-nuclei formation and oxidative stress.

8 Embellica officinalis Cell Survival,

helps to increase radiation-induced weight loss

9 Phyllanthus amarus Protect against radiation-induced decline in WBC
10 Amaranthus paniculatus Protect against radiation-induced lethality,

helps to increased spleen colony forming units and spleen weight without any side effect.

11 Piper longum Protect against radiation-induced decline in WBC, bone marrow cell. It helps to reduced the elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase, lipid peroxidation in liver and serum
12 Syzigium cumini Affect on micronuclei,

it was found to reduce radiation-induced sickness, gastrointestinal and bone marrow death.

13 Mentha arvensis and mentha piperita Protect against radiation-induced sickness, gastrointestinal and bone marrow death, decline in hematological constituents, serum phosphatase, endogenous spleen colonies formation, spleen weight, goblet cells and chromosomal damage.
14 Zingiber officinale Protect against radiation-induced sickness, gastrointestinal and bone marrow death,
15 Ageratum conyzoides Protect against radiation-induced sickness, gastrointestinal and bone marrow death,

 

 

Mechanism of action:

Medicinal plants and herbs have chemical composition which helps to bind the free radical electron. It result’s into free radical scavenging effect, cell cycle repair, DNA repair. Following diagram shows the exact mechanism.

Conclusion:

  • Majority of plant and herbs described in this review have medicinal properties and are being used in traditional Ayurvedic or Chinese systems of medicine to treat various ailments in humans.
  • Most of these plants and herbs certainly have potential as radio-protectors of future.
  • They protect against the radiation-induced damage by scavenging of free radicals and increasing antioxidant status.
  • Study may useful in cancer patient for prevention, treatment and side effect reduction of radiation therapy.

References:

  • Roentgen W.C. Sitzungsberichte Würzburger Physik-medic. Gesellschaft137, 132–141, 1895; translation by Arthur Stanton as On a New Kind of Rays. Nature. 1896;53:274–276.
  • Becquerel A.H. On the rays emitted by phosphorescence. Comptes Rendus. 1896;122:420–421.
  • Patt H.M., Tyree E.B., Straube R.L., Smith D.E. Cysteine protection against X-irradiation. Science. 1949;110:213–214.
  • Sweeney T.R. Survey of compounds from the antiradiation drug development program of the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. publication; 1979. pp. 308–318.
  • Maisin J.R. Bacq and Alexander Award lecture–chemical radioprotection: past, present, and future prospects. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 1998;73:443–450.
  • Cragg G.M., Newman D.J., Snader K.M. Natural products in drug discovery and development. J. Nat. Prod. 1997;60:52–60.
  • Jagetia G.C., Baliga M.S. The evaluation of the radioprotective effect of the leaf extract of Syzygium cumini (Jamun) in the mice exposed to lethal dose of radiation. Nahrung/Food. 2003;47:181–185.
  • Yuhas J.M., Storer J.B. Chemoprotection against three modes of radiation death in the mouse. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. Relat. Stud. Phys. Chem. Med. 1969;15:233–237.
  • Brown D.Q., Graham W.J., Mackensie L.J., Pittock J.W., Shaw L. Can WR-2721 be improved upon. Pharmacol. Ther. 1988;39:157–168.
  • Jagetia G.C., Shrinath Baliga M., Malagi K.J., Sethukumar Kamath M. The evaluation of the radioprotective effect of Triphala (an Ayurvedic rejuvenating drug) in the mice exposed to gamma-radiation. Phytomedicine. 2002;9:99–108.PubMed

ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE: WHAT AYURVEDA CAN DO..??

ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE: WHAT AYURVEDA CAN DO..??

Author – Dr. Parimala Khashbhag

BAMS Student

 

Shri B.M.K. Ayurved Mahavidyalaya, Belgaum, Karnataka

 

WHO defines antimicrobial resistance as a microorganism’s resistance to an antimicrobial drug that was once able to treat an infection by that microorganism.

Mode of development of antibiotic resistance:-

1) Plasmids: These are units of DNA which have the capacity of replication within the host. A single plasmid can harbor several genes coding for multiple drug resistance.

2) Inactivation of antibiotic: Bacteria may produce enzymes that chemically modify or degrade antibiotics and inactivate the drugs.

3) Target site modification: The molecules that are normally bound by an antibiotic are normally altered or replaced and thus essentially eliminate the drug’s targets in bacterial cells.

4) Prevent drug uptake: The entry ports for the drugs can be eliminated by bacteria by altering permeability.

5) Efflux pumps (EP): There are 5 super – families of microbial efflux system. These EPs are responsible for the export of antibiotics before they find their intracellular targets.

6) Biofilm formation: Biofilm is formed by a complex aggregation of microbes, where in the cells are embedded in matrix of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) which are self-produced by microbes.

WHAT AYURVEDA CAN DO..??

As WHO said resistance is a property of the microbe, not a person or other organism infected by a microbe. So it clearly implies two important aspects of treatment.

 

 

  • Prevention of infection 2) Control of resistance.

INFECTIONS ARE PREVENTED BY PRACTICING:-

  1. Daily regimens
  2. Seasonal regimens
  3. Night regimens
  4. Proper practice of sexual activity according to season, age and usage of vrushya dravya etc
  5. Following proper code of conduct (Achara rasayanas)
  6. Consumption of balanced diet (Nitya sevaniya Ahara)
  7. Proper sleeping pattern i.e. “Early to bed, early to rise keeps person healthy”
  8. Daily intake of rasayana dravyas
  • CONTROL OF RESISTANCE /INFECTION BY USING HERBAL DRUGS

Plants produce a wide range of phytochemicals called secondary plant metabolites which are helpful to fight against various infections are as follows:-

  • ALKALOIDS:-

They tend to exhibit analgesic effects; morphine alkaloids are pain relievers and are used as narcotics. The alkaloids possess the ability to intercalate with DNA thereby resulting in impaired cell division and cell death. .

2) PHENOLICS AND POLYPHENOLS- They consists of flavonoids, quinones, tannins, and coumarins.

  1. A) FLAVONOIDS:- These phenolic structures are usually found in common edible plant parts such as: Vegetables, seeds, fruits and nuts.

1) These acts on the microbial cell membranes by increasing permeability of membrane and disruption by interacting with membrane proteins.

2) Also possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activity.

  1. B) QUININE

Mode of action:-Surface-exposed adhesion proteins, cell wall poly-peptide, and membrane-bound enzymes are the major targets in the microbial cell.

  1. C) TANNINS:-Earlier studies have shown that tannin exhibit different biological activities including antibacterial and anti-fungal. The mechanism of antimicrobial efficacy of tannin is possibly due to inactivation of cell envelope transport proteins and microbial adhesion.
  2. D) COUMARINS- Coumarins have been recently isolated as anti-tubercular constituents from Fatuous pilosa.
  • TERPENES :-Terpenoids, one of the terpene derivative, are antibacterial in nature.

Mode of action :-Disruption of the membrane in microbes.

  • LECTINS AND POLYPEPTIDES

1) Competitive inhibition of adhesion of microbial proteins to host polysaccharide receptors or due to the formation of ion channels in the microbial membrane.

5) SAPONINS:-

Evidence based research on mode of action of phytochemicals:-

  • A single plant alkaloidberberine, an active ingredient of Rhizome coptidis, has been reported to possess different antimicrobial activities.
  • Anti-herpes effects of berberine was reported and the possible mechanism was demonstrated to be inhibition of synthesis of herpes simplexviral DNA.
  • A study by Gupta et al, has demonstrated that Alpinia galangaextracts are effective against multi drug resistant isolates of ?tuberculosis.

5) Inhibition of bio film formation

Trans-cinnamaldehyde, an aromatic aldehyde from bark of cinnamon trees, terpenes were found to exhibit marked antibiofilm activity against both fungal and bacterial biofilms.

6) Efflux pump (EP) inhibitors

Piperine has been reported to modulate Rv1258c, an efflux protein belonging to the MFS super family of efflux systems, thereby increasing the bioavailability and consequently the susceptibility of M. tuberculosis to rifampicin. Thus addition of piperine increases susceptibility to rifampicin  in M. tuberculosis strains in which Rv1258c is responsible for drug resistance.

8) Immunomodulation

  1. A) Innate immunity modulators

Macrophage activation is a key component of innate immunity. Eucalyptus oil and oil from seeds of Chenopodium ambrosioides have been reported to enhance the phagocytic activity of macrophages, whereas essential oils from Petroselinum crispum and Artemisia were found to suppress phagocytosis by macrophages.

B) Acquired immunity modulators.

The aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula has also been reported to increase the antibody titres in mice against Salmonella typhi murium. Extracts of Z. officinale and P.ginseng are stimulators of IL 6 and B cell.

 Conclusion

Microbes fail to identify exact mode of action of complex phytochemicals to develop resistance. So it important to use crude extract of plants then isolated compounds to prevent resistance.